Paula Kotze's Publications
Below is a selected list of some of my publications since 2001. if you wish to see the full list and publications before 2001, please contact me directly.
This page in still under construction and I will add more details over time (when I next have some time to spare. maybe when I retire :-)
I try to add new publications as they appear, but the most recent list can often be found on the MEKE Publication Page.
National Department of Health and CSIR. 2014. National Health Normative Standards Framework for Interoperability in eHealth in South Africa, (Complete Version, Version 2.0, March 2014). Authors: Paula Kotzé, Funmi Adebesin, Rosemary Foster, Darelle van Greunen, and Alida Veldsman.
Government Gazette (Government Notice 314, Government Gazette 37583) and the related HNSF version: The official Government Notice publishing the HNSF was issued on 23 April 2014.
Funmi Adebesin, Paula Kotzé, Derek Ritz, Rosemary Foster, Darelle van Greunen. 2014. A method for selecting e-health standards to support interoperability of healthcare information systems. In: Proceedings of IST Africa 2014, eHealth Thematic Area, Dublin: IIMC International Information Management Corporation Ltd, ISBN: 978-1-905824-43-4, 11 pages (No page numbers - electronic proceedings)
There is growing concern over the fragmentation and
inability of healthcare information systems (e-health systems) to exchange
pertinent healthcare information that can empower healthcare professionals to
make informed decisions regarding the care of their patients. Standardisation
is increasingly being seen as a means to ensure the interoperability of e-health
systems. However, several e-health standards are being published, many of them
without implementation guidelines. This paper describes a proposed method that
could guide the selection of e-health standards (particularly for developing
countries) to support the interoperability of e-health systems. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Paula Kotzé and Rosemary Foster. 2014. A conceptual data model for a primary healthcare patient-centric electronic medical record system. In: Proceedings of the IASTED African Conference on Health Informatics (Africa HI 2014), edited by N.M. Seboni and M.N. Tanko. Acta Press. ISBN: 978-0-88986-970-7, P. 245 - 250.
The development and use of national guidelines for the exchange of patient-centric healthcare data from electronic medical record systems are essential for the consistent and efficient use and analysis of those data. These guidelines must be based on a core national data model. This paper proposes a basic conceptual data model for primary healthcare patient-centric electronic medical record systems, derived for the South African district health system context, which would provide a suitable set of information to ensure continuity and longitudinality of patient-centric healthcare information. The data model was compiled based on the characteristics of the district –based primary healthcare model, data collected from best practices internationally regarding continuity of care, typical healthcare protocols, a study of public healthcare district hospital information systems and both public and private primary healthcare information systems. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Jan Mentz, Paula Kotze‚ & Alta van der Merwe. 2014. Propositions that Describe the Intended Meaning of Enterprise Architecture. In: Empowered by Technology – Proceedings of SAICSIT 2014, edited by JP van Deventer, MC Matthee. H Gelderblom and A Gerber. ACM Press, ISBN: 978-1-4503-3246-0, p 304 - 313.
In scientific inquiry definitions serves the purpose of describing what something is in terms that are concise, precise and allows for clear communication. Since the start of the enterprise architecture (EA) research field the issue of the definition of terms and fundamental concepts has been continually debated. The ongoing debate is indicative of a lack of universal agreement on EA fundamentals amongst EA researchers and practitioners which, in turn, manifests as a gap in the literature with regard to the underlying fundamental concepts of EA. This paper reports on the results of an investigation into the description of EA‘s fundamental concepts. During the investigation a structured interpretation method was applied to two prominent enterprise architecture frameworks in order to produce a set of EA propositions that captured the fundamental meaning of EA as a concept. The investigation resulted in the ‗EA claim‘ that EA is similar, in intent, to the enterprise as a worldview is to the world. The ‗EA claim‘ and its supportive six EA propositions provide and explicit description of the foundational understanding of what EA is. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Funmi Adebesin, Rosemary Foster, Paula Kotzé and Darelle van Greunen. 2013. A Review of Interoperability Standards in E-health and Imperatives for their Adoption in Africa. South African Computer Journal, Vol. 50, p. 55 - 72, July 2013.
The ability of healthcare information systems to share and exchange information (interoperate) is essential to facilitate the quality and effectiveness of healthcare services. Although standardization is considered key to addressing the fragmentation currently challenging the healthcare environment, e-health standardization can be difficult for many reasons, one of which is making sense of the e-health interoperability standards landscape. Specifically aimed at the African health informatics community, this paper aims to provide an overview of e-health interoperability and the significance of standardization in its achievement. We conducted a literature study of e-health standards, their development, and the degree of participation by African countries in the process. We also provide a review of a selection of prominent e-health interoperability standards that have been widely adopted especially by developed countries, look at some of the factors that affect their adoption in Africa, and provide an overview of ongoing global initiatives to address the identified barriers. Although the paper is specifically aimed at the African community, its findings would be equally applicable to many other developing countries.
Another version of the paper is available here
Funmi Adebesin, Paula Kotzé, Darelle van Greunen, Rosemary Foster. 2013. Barriers and Challenges to the Adoption of E-Health Standards in Africa. In: Empowering patients and healthcare professionals with information and technologies – Proceedings of Health Informatics South Africa 2013 (HISA 2013) Conference. ISBN: 978-1-920508-30-2 (No page numbers -electronic proceedings).
Although standardization is seen as the key to ensuring interoperability of healthcare information systems, the large numbers of standards available can make the selection decision difficult especially for a developing nation. This paper reports on a study of ehealth standards development and the level of African countries’ participation in the development process. We explored the factors that restrict the adoption of e-health standards by African countries and provide ways of overcoming the barriers. We conducted literature study of e-health standards, their development, and the degree of participation by African countries in the process. The study revealed that African countries’ active participation in e-health standards development is limited to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), with no evidence of active involvement in other international standards development initiatives. Several factors were found to contribute to limited participation in the development and adoption of e-health standards by African Countries.
This paper received the Sedick Isaacs Best Paper Award at HISA 2013.
Funmi Adebesin and Paula Kotzé. 2012. The Design of Application-Specific Heuristics for the Usability Evaluation of the Digital Doorway. South African Computer Journal, Vol 48, June 2012, p.9-30.
The Digital Doorway (DD) is a joint initiative between the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Meraka Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The DD is a non-standard computer system deployed amongst underprivileged communities in South Africa with the objective to promote computer literacy. Since its inception, there has been no usability or accessibility evaluation of the software installed on the DD, mainly due to lack of usability engineering or interaction design expertise within the development team. The goal of the research presented in this paper was to design a solution to this problem by developing a suitable instrument that could guide DD application developers in the design and development of more usable DD software and interfaces. Design research was used as a research methodology. We first investigated the applicability of the standard usability and accessibility evaluation methods for evaluating the software installed on the DD. During the first cycle of design research, we established that a heuristic-like evaluation method would be an appropriate method for evaluating the usability and direct accessibility support provided by the DD. During a second cycle of design research, embedded in the first, we also developed a set of multi-category heuristics as the ‘instrument’ that could guide the developers during design of applications as well as in the first-level (formative) evaluation thereof. To verify the heuristics, we conducted a usability evaluation of the DD and triangulated the results with a direct field observation at a natural environment of DD use, together with user-administered questionnaires
Paula Kotzé, Motse Tsogang, Alta van der Merwe. 2012. A Framework for Creating Pattern Languages for Enterprise Architecture. IN: Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research and Practice-Driven Research on Enterprise Transformation (Proceeding of (7th Workshop, TEAR 2012 and 5th Working Conference, PRET 2012) edited by Stephan Aier, Mathias Ekstedt, Florian Matthes, Erik Proper and Jorge L. Sanz, LNBIP 131, pp. 1–20, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN: 978-3-642-34162-5.
The use of patterns and pattern languages in enterprise architecture (EA) is a relatively novel concept. Although both the concepts of patterns and EA are over 30 years old, the notion of design patterns is hardly applied to EA. There is a lack of pattern collections specifically devoted to EA: only a small number of patterns and pattern collections specifically aimed at enterprise architecture can be found in the public domain. Furthermore no framework or method exist that would assist enterprise architects in creating patterns and pat- tern languages for EA. This paper aims to bridge this gap by proposing a pattern framework for enterprise architecture (PF4EA), which can guide the development of well-grounded patterns and pattern languages for the EA domain. The components of the frameworks are described as well as a method for its use. Another version of the paper is available here.
André Pelser, Alta van der Merwe, Paula Kotze. 2012. Rethinking sustainability of small towns: towards a socio-technical approach. In: Small Town Geograhies in Africa: Experiences from South Africa and Elsewhere, edited by Ronnie Donaldson and Lochner Marais. Nova Science Publishers (in print).
Over the past few decades stagnating and even declining local economies, out-migration of the young, skilled and highly educated segments of the community and also high levels of unemployment and poverty have taken their toll on the populations and sustainability of small rural towns in Africa and elsewhere in the world. Declining economic functions in such towns, often triggered by the demise of the core or dominant economic industry, inevitably result in the so-called “ghost town” outcome, with numerous negative socio-economic and environmental consequences.
In this chapter we suggest a socio-technical approach (STA) to support decision making within small single-resource towns in order to enhance economic diversity and meet the conditions of sustainable economic development at the small-town level. For the purposes of this paper, the concept socio-technical points to a multidisciplinary and interactive collaboration forged between the social sciences and information technology. Using the case of mine closure at Koffiefontein in the Free State Province of South Africa, we will argue that the optimisation of economic and social development in small towns through proactive planning activities, requires a systems approach that should allow for continuous information capturing in order to mitigate and manage the impact of single-industry demise and enhance the social and economic sustainability of such towns. Conducting regular assessments of local socio-economic dynamics and tapping into the socio-economic information base of local agencies and stakeholders (such as a mining company), may provide a longitudinal database of social and economic status generated before and during the various stages of mine development in the town. One approach to managing complexity, impact and change within the single-resource environment of a small town is to create an information base on “what is” and to use this information to introduce development initiatives that will both diversify and propel economic sustainability in the local context. In other words, intelligent tools can assist all role players to manage both complexity and change within the affected town more efficiently and also to create a more sustainable economic environment.
Jan Mentz, Paula Kotze, Alta van der Merwe. 2012. A Comparison of Practitioner and Researcher Definitions of Enterprise Architecture using an Interpretation Method. In: Advances in Enterprise Information Systems, edited by Charles Moller and Sohail Chaudhry, CRC Press/Balkema.
This chapter is based on a paper was presented at the CONFENIS 2012 Conference.
The term enterprise architecture has been in use for almost thirty years if the seminal paper (published in 1987) by Zachman is taken as its starting point. As a scientific area of study this time span is relatively short but for the practitioner it could be a time long enough for the original interest to wane. Gartner’s research reflects that the practitioner interest is growing and the development of enterprise architecture frameworks such as the 2009 update of The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) shows the active development of enterprise architecture frameworks. In this paper two enterprise architecture definitions that is representative of the practitioner and the researcher position are compared to the definitions of the Zachman Framework and TOGAF to determine the agreement between practitioner and researcher thought on enterprise architecture. The comparison is conducted via an interpretation method that is based on hermeneutic phenomenology. The results indicate a correspondence between practitioner and researcher views that opens the way for co-operative research.
Mariana Carroll, Paula Kotzé, Alta van der Merwe. 2012. Securing Virtual and Cloud Environments. In: Cloud Computing and Services Science, Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy), edited by I. Ivanov et al., DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2326-3 4, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.
Organizations have to adapt quickly to changes, continuously investigate innovations and be flexible in order to remain competitive. The IT landscape has evolved to enable organizations competitive advantage and to meet targets such as reduced costs, scalability, flexibility, capacity utilization, higher efficiencies and mobility. Many of these benefits are achieved through the utilization of technologies such as cloud computing and virtualization. In many instances cloud computing builds on the capabilities of a virtualized computing infrastructure enabling multi-tenancy, scalability and a highly abstracted cloud model. Even though cloud computing and virtualization provide significant benefits and cost-effective options for IT hosting and expansion, cloud and virtual IT systems are not risk-free. Risks must be understood to ensure adequate security not only for cloud computing, but also for the underlying technologies enabling cloud computing. The focus of this paper is on mitigation for virtualization and cloud computing security risks as a fundamental step towards ensuring secure cloud computing environments.
Indira Padyachee, Paula Kotze, Alta van der Merwe. 2011. Course Management Systems from a Usability Perspective. Alternation, Vol 18, No 1, 2011, 297-317.
The advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web has revolutionised practices in business, government, health, and education amongst others. In education, the Internet and World Wide Web opened new doors for teaching and learning, thereby affording educators an opportunity to deploy new teaching, learning and administration strategies and affording learners a rich learning experience. In South African higher education institutions, course management systems (CMSs) have been adopted, and are becoming increasingly popular among academics. However, much attention has been focused on the technology, namely the functionalities and tools offered by CMSs. Very little effort has been directed at understanding the usability properties of this class of software and the impact it may have on adoption of this type of software. This paper focuses on the evaluation of selected CMSs used in higher education by using specific usability criteria and principles as the basis for the evaluation. This usability inspection method is termed heuristic evaluation, which is performed ‘as a systematic inspection of a user interface design for usability’ (Nielsen, 2005). Results pertaining to the heuristic evaluation of the selected CMSs will be discussed. This paper is part of a larger study that aims at generating knowledge about the interactive properties of CMSs.
Mariana Carroll, Paula Kotzé, Alta van der Merwe. 2011. Secure Virtualization: Benefits, Risks and Controls. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, edited by Frank Leymann, Ivan Ivanov, Marten van Sinderen and Boris Shishkov, SciTePress, ISBN: 978-989-8425-52-2, p. 15 – 23.
Cloud computing is changing the IT delivery model to provide on-demand self-service access to a shared pool of computing resources (physical and virtual) via broad network access to offer reduced costs, scalability, flexibility, capacity utilization, higher efficiencies, and mobility. In many instances cloud computing builds on the capabilities of a virtualized computing infrastructure enabling multi-tenancy, scalability and a highly abstracted cloud model. Even though cloud computing provides compelling benefits and cost effective options for IT hosting and expansion, security of applications and data remains a number one business objective. It is therefore essential to not only ensure adequate security for cloud computing but also for the underlying technologies enabling cloud computing. Management should understand and analyse risks in order to safeguard systems and data. The focus of this paper is on mitigation for virtualization security risks as a fundamental step towards secure cloud computing environments. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Dina Jacobs, Paula Kotze, Alta van der Merwe, Aurona Gerber. 2011. Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium Enterprise Growth. In: Advances in Enterprise Engineering V - First Enterprise Engineering Working Conference (EEWC 2011), edited by Antonia Albani, Jan L G Dietz, and Jan Verelst, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, ISBN: 978-3-642-21057-0, P 61 -75.
A key constraint for growing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is the business skills required to grow the enterprises through the stages of transformation. Criticism against growth stage models for SMEs is of concern, since these models contain the typical knowledge that appeals to managers of small enterprises as guidance in how to manage growth. In this article we propose the SMEAG model to explore the relevance of enterprise architecture (EA) for enhancing existing growth stage models in order to counteract some of this criticism. EA is well-known as a field that claims to manage change and complexity. The rationale to combine the concepts of growth stage models and EA is based on the level of change and complexity associated with the growth of small enterprises into medium enterprises. SMEAG combines the existing growth stage model of Scott and Bruce, the Enterprise Architecture Framework by Hoogervorst, and the EA as Foundation for Business Execution Model by Ross, Weill and Robertson. A draft version of the paper is availabel here.
Rubina Adam, Paula Kotze, Alta van der Merwe. 2011. Acceptance of enterprise resource planning systems by small manufacturing Enterprises. In: In: Proceedings of the 1tth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Vol.1, edited by Runtong Zhang, José Cordeiro, Xuewei Li, Zhenji Zhang and Juliang Zhang, SciTePress. , p. 229 - 238.
ERP systems are widely used by large enterprises for managing functional areas of the enterprise. However, recently ERP systems have also been introduced to the small enterprise market. ERP systems are now considered an important small enterprise management aid that may contribute to the sustainability and growth of the small enterprise. Although there are several acceptance factors that may impact on the acceptance of ERP systems, limited research has been done to understand the acceptance of ERP systems by small enterprises. This paper addresses this gap by considering the strategic, business, technical and human factors that influence the acceptance of ERP systems in small manufacturing enterprises in South Africa. The consultative list of acceptance factors flowing from this research may guide future initiatives aiming to ensure the acceptance of ERP systems by small manufacturing enterprises. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Mariana Carroll, Paula Kotze, Alta van der Merwe. 2011. Secure Cloud Computing: Benefits, Risks and Controls. Proceedings of the 2011 Information Security for South Africa (ISSA 2011) Conference, IEEE, ISBN 978-1-4577-1482-5 (electronic paper - no page numbers).
Cloud computing presents a new model for IT service delivery and it typically involves over-a-network, on-demand, self-service access, which is dynamically scalable and elastic, utilising pools of often virtualized resources. Through these features, cloud computing has the potential to improve the way businesses and IT operate by offering fast start-up, flexibility, scalability and cost efficiency. Even though cloud computing provides compelling benefits and cost-effective options for IT hosting and expansion, new risks and opportunities for security exploits are introduced. Standards, policies and controls are therefore of the essence to assist management in protecting and safeguarding systems and data. Management should understand and analyse cloud computing risks in order to protect systems and data from security exploits. The focus of this paper is on mitigation for cloud computing security risks as a fundamental step towards ensuring secure cloud computing environments. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Andrew Smith, Lizette Reitsma, Elise van der Hoven, Paula Kotzé. 2011. Towards Preserving Indigenous Oral Stories using Tangible Objects. Proceedings Second International Conference on Culture and Computing - Culture and Computing 2011 Conference, IEEE Computer Soceity Press, ISBN 978-0-7695-4546-2.
Handcrafted beadwork produced by the BaNtwane people of South Africa is loaded with meaning. Communicating indigenous oral stories is important for passing on culturespecific traditions and community memory, such as the meaning of the handcrafted beadwork. Oral stories are told within the physical confines of the community. The community we focus on in this paper suffers from younger generations moving away physically, start preferring the English language over their mother tongue and digital over oral communication, and therefore this co-located storytelling process is interrupted. Aspart of the StoryBeads project we have created an interactive system that incorporates a combination of physical objects and modern technology for recording and replaying oral stories that can help preserve the meaning of the handcrafted beadwork of the BaNtwane people. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Marne de Vries, Alta van der Merwe, Paula Kotze and Aurona Gerber. 2011. Using the interaction model to compare ontological similarity between business units. In: 1st International Conference on Industrial Engineering,Systems Engineering and Engineering Management for Sustainable Global Development (ISEM)- ISEM 2011 Conference Proceedings, edited by l Pretorius and CSL Schutte, SAIIE, ISBN 978-0-620-50712-7, p. 134-1 - 134-14.
Enterprise engineering is an enterprise design methodology that uses a process to create an organised whole, while mastering complexity. Dietz proposes an organisation theorem that reduces complexity by representing the heterogeneous enterprise system as a layered integration of three homogeneous aspect systems: the ontological, infological and datalogical. The ontological aspect system represents the essence of enterprise operation and a starting point for engineering a complex enterprise. This paper applies one of the key ontological models, namely the interaction model (IAM), to assess its ability to indentify replication potential due to ontological similarity. The case study environment for application of the IAM model was four departments at a tertiary education institution.
Funmi Adebesin, Paula Kotze, Helene Gelderblom. 2011. Design research as a framework to evaluate the usability and accessibility of the Digital Doorway. In: Proceedings of Design, Development and Research 2011, edited by Eddie Appiah, Nhlanhla Mlitwa and Dzigbordi Anyomi. CPUT, ISBN: 978-0-620-52128-4, p. 306 - 323.
The usability and accessibility of interactive system interfaces, as well as their evaluation, constitute important focus areas of human-computer interaction (HCI). One of the families of evaluation methods that can be used to assess the usability and accessibility of a given interface is the heuristic evaluation method. Heuristic evaluation can be conducted by applying general purpose heuristics or through heuristics that are specifically developed for the given interface. Developing specific heuristics hardly ever involves the use of a sound and recognised research methodology. Design research is increasingly being used as a theoretical and methodological framework for information systems research, in general, and HCI research in particular. Design research is a problem-solving approach, involving the creation of artefacts through a rigorous process of design-evaluate-redesign. In a novel approach, we first utilized the design research paradigm in the development of application-specific heuristics, and then also to evaluate the usability and direct accessibility support provided by the Digital Doorway, a non-standard computer system deployed amongst underprivileged communities in South Africa with the aim of promoting computer literacy. This paper discusses the approach we followed.
Smith, A C Kotze, P and Gelderblom H. 2011. The general design methodology applied to the research domain of physical programming for computer illiterates. In: Proceedings of Design, Development and Research 2011, edited by Eddie Appiah, Nhlanhla Mlitwa and Dzigbordi Anyomi. CPUT, ISBN: 978-0-620-52128-4, p. 25 - 33.
Here we discuss the application of the ‘general design methodology’ in the context of a physical computing project. The aim of the project was to design and develop physical objects that could serve as metaphors for computer programming elements. These physical objects would then be used by computer illiterates to construct the logic of a computer program.
Paula Kotze. 2011. Towards Integrative Human Work Analysis in National Health Information Systems: An Enterprise Engineering Approach. In: Workshop Proceedings - Human Work Interaction Design for e-Government and Public Information Systems, edited by Dinesh Katre, Pedro Campos, Torkil Clemmensen, Rikke Orngreen, Annelise Mark Pejtersen. IFIP.
The position paper proposes the use of an enterprise engineering methodology for human work analysis in the context of governmental sectors. The introduction of the National Health Insurance in South Africa is used as example to illustrate the foundational aspects of such a approach. The approach is based on an enterprise engineering approach (GERAM) that makes use of generic modelling concepts, for example the Zachman Ontology.
Marne de Vries, Alta van der Merwe, Paula Kotze and Aurona Gerber. 2011. A Method for Identifying Process Reuse Opportunities to Enhance the Operating Model. In: The IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management IEEM 2011, ISBN: 978-1-4577-0739-1, p. 1005 - 1009.
Staying competitive in the 21st century requires enterprise unity and integration, allowing for agility to accommodate swift changes in strategy as markets evolve and new opportunities emerge. The foundation for execution approach acknowledges the volatility of strategy and suggests the use of an operating model (OM), which is a commitment to a way of doing business. The OM creates a company-wide vision for process standardization and data centralization and guides decisions about how a company implements processes and IT infrastructure. Although the OM provides senior management with a powerful decision-making tool in evolving the current IT landscape, the selection of an appropriate OM requires additional guidance. This article elaborates on current OM deficiencies, requirements for enhancement and a new method, mechanisms and practices to enable an enterprise architecture practitioner to identify the required process reuse opportunities for a specific OM. A fraft version of the paper is availble here.
Adebesin, A; Kotze, P; Gelderblom, H. 2010. 2010. The impact of usability on efforts to bridge the digital divide. Proceedings of 4th IDIA Conference 2010 Exploring Success and Failure in Development Informatics: Innovation, Research and Practice; edited by J Steyn, Monash University. ISBN: 978-0-620-47590-7.
There is growing efforts to narrow the digital divide both locally and internationally. One such effort is the Digital Doorway project driven by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Meraka Institute of Council for Science and Industrial Research (CSIR). It involves a non-standard computer system housed in a rugged, custom-designed kiosk. The preloaded software applications run on the Ubuntu Linux operating system, but the interface is not standard Linux. The project has mainly focused on providing physical access to computers in underprivileged communities around South Africa, without any formal usability evaluation of the software installed on the system. Our belief is that unless basic usability concerns are addressed in these types of development projects, the dream of the providing effective access may remain just that – a dream. This paper highlights the important role that usability plays in the drive towards narrowing the digital divide. We report on the outcome of a usability evaluation field study conducted on the Digital Doorway. The results suggest that there is a need for in-house usability standards to guide the various developers (in-house or external) who build applications for the Digital Doorway.
De Vries, M, Van der Merwe, A, Gerber, A, Kotze, P (2010) Refining The Operating Model Concept To Enable Systematic Growth In Operating Maturity, In 24t Annual SAIIE Conference Conference Proceedings, edited by C Schutte, p. 31-45, ISBN: 978-86970-686-2.
To stay competitive, enterprises of today need to rely on a sound foundation for execution that incorporates the infrastructure and digitised processes for automating a company’s core capabilities. Once this foundation has been established, management could move their attention away from focusing on lower-value activities to innovative ways to increase profits and growth.
The Business-IT Alignment Framework (BIAF) defines business-IT alignment in terms of a paradigm of alignment, three dimensions for alignment, and mechanisms and practices. The BIAF could provide a business-IT alignment perspective on the foundation for execution approach. Using the BIAF perspective, this paper comments on some of the deficiencies related to the foundation for execution approach regarding the systematic identification of opportunities for enterprise-wide process standardisation. The goal is to define a list of requirements that should direct the design of appropriate mechanisms and practices to address the identification of process re-use opportunities for multiple levels of operating maturity.
Adebesin, A; Kotze, P; Gelderblom, H. 2010. The complementary role of two evaluation methods in the usability and accessibility of a non-standard system. Proceedings of the SAICSIT 2010 Conference - Fountains of Computing Research, edited by Paula Kotze, Aurona Gerber, Alta van der Merwe, and Nicola Bidwell. ACM pRess, p. 1 - 11, ISBN: 978-1-60558-950-3.
Usability, which is generally defined in terms of application effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction, is one of the focus areas of human-computer interaction (HCI). Accessibility is the design of systems that can be perceived, understood and used by people with varying abilities. Although accessibility concerns are aimed at making systems usable for people with disabilities, support for direct accessibility, the built-in redundancies in an application that enable as many people as possible to utilize it without system modifications, is beneficial to people with or without disabilities. Different usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are available. Selecting between the various methods can be influenced by the type of system being evaluated. The Digital Doorway (DD), a non-standard computer system deployed to promote computer literacy amongst underprivileged communities in South Africa, was evaluated using the heuristic evaluation method and a field usability study. The heuristic evaluation method revealed a large number of usability and direct accessibility-related problems, some of which could be classified as low-severity problems. The field study showed additional problems that affected the successful completion of user tasks. Since a number of these were a direct consequence of the context of use, they were not recognized as problems by expert evaluators. The study showed that the heuristic evaluation method can be optimized by complementing it with another method that involves user participation and is, preferably, carried out in the intended context of use. A draft version of the paper is vailable here.
The paper received the ' Best Paper by a Masters Student Award'.
Smuts, H; Van der Merwe, A; Kotze, P; Loock, M. 2010. Critical success factors for information systems outsourcing management: a software development lifecycle view. Proceedings of the SAICSIT 2010 Conference - Fountains of Computing Research, edited by Paula Kotze, Aurona Gerber, Alta van der Merwe, and Nicola Bidwell. ACM Press, p. 304 - 313, ISBN: 978-1-60558-950-3.
Information systems (IS) outsourcing is a serious commitment – a formal relationship underpinned by a contractual agreement, with long-term consequences among two or more organisations. Many organisations end up frustrated as they learn that their attempts at IS outsourcing have failed. However, some failures could be avoided with knowledge of common pitfalls and critical success factors of such IS outsourcing contracts. This paper investigates essential aspects of IS outsourcing management during the software development life cycle. The survey results are reported in conjunction with findings in the literature of similar studies in other markets, and unique contributors to IS outsourcing in this particular context in the South African corporate market, are identified. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Kotze, P., Neaga, I. 2010. Towards an Enterprise Interoperability Framework. In: Proceedings of the International Joint Workshop on Technologies for Context-Aware Business Process Management, Advanced Enterprise Architecture and Repositories and Recent Trends in SOA Based Information Systems; edited by LT Ly, L H Thom, S Rindele-Ma, A Gerber, K Hinkelman, P Kotze, U Reimer, A van der Merwe, W Mansoor, S Elnaffar, V Monfort. SciTe Press, Portugal p. 16 - 29; ISBN: 978-989-8425-09-06
This paper presents relevant interoperability approaches and solutions applied to global/international networked (collaborative) enterprises or organisations and conceptualise an enhanced enterprise interoperability framework. The paper covers several key aspects including how holistic approaches of architecting principles, standards and semantics contribute to the development of an interoperability framework that can be flexibly used for interoperable complex systems, particularly ICT, that support global enterprises including organisations from multiple countries, e.g. European and African organisations. This proposed comprehensive approach of interoperability covers not only technical aspects, but also semantics alongside organisational and cultural aspects. The use of systems engineering thinking and architecting for achieving interoperability of complex systems is suggested. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Gerber A; Van der Merwe, A; Kotze, P: 2010. Towards the Formalisation of the TOGAF Contenet Metamodel using Ontlogies. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
Volume 2: Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support Systems, edited by Joaquim Filipe and José Cordeiro, SciTePress, p. 54 - 64. ISBN: 978-989-8425-05-8.
Metamodels are abstractions that are used to specify characteristics of models. Such metamodels are gen- erally included in specifications or framework descriptions. A metamodel is for instance used to inform the generation of enterprise architecture content in the Open Group’s TOGAF 9 Content Metamodel description. However. the description of metamodels is usually done in an ad-hoc manner with customised languages and this often results in ambiguities and inconsistencies. We are concerned with the question of how the quality of metamodel descriptions, specifically within the enterprise architecture domain, could be enhanced. There- fore we investigated whether formal ontology technologies could be used to enhance metamodel construction, specification and design. For this research, we constructed a formal ontology for the TOGAF 9 Content Meta- model, and in the process, gained valuable insight into metamodel quality. In particular, the current Content Metamodel contains ambiguities and inconsistencies, which could be eliminated using ontology technologies. In this paper we argue for the integration of formal ontologies and ontology technologies as tools into meta- model construction and specification. Ontologies allow for the construction of complex conceptual models, but more significant, ontologies can assist an architect by depicting all the consequences of a model, allowing for more precise and complete artifacts within enterprise architectures, and because these models use standardized languages, they should promote integration and interoperability. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Carrol, M; Kotze, P; Van der Merwe, A: 2010. Going Virtual: Popular Trend or Real Prospect for Enterprise Information Systems. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
Volume 1: Databases and Information Systems Integration, edited by Joaquim Filipe and José Cordeiro, SciTePress, p. 214 - 222. ISBN: 978-989-8425-04-1.
Organisations are faced with a number of challenges and issues in decentralised, multiple-server, physical, non-virtualized IT environments. Virtualization in recent years has had a significant impact on computing environments and has introduced benefits, including server consolidation, server and hardware utilization and reduced costs. Virtualization’s popularity has led to its growth in many IT environments. This paper provides an overview of the IT challenges in non-virtualized environments and addresses the question of whether virtualization provides the solution to these IT challenges. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Padayachee, I., Kotze, P. van der Merwe, A. 2010. ISO 9126 external systems quality characteristics, sub-characteristics and domain specific criteria for evaluating e-Learning systems. In: Proceedings of SACLA 2010 Conference.
Universities and technical institutes in a developing country like South Africa are faced with the challenge of adopting and embracing a course management system to implement e-learning. Course management systems are interactive systems that enable educators, with minimal technology expertise to design, develop and deliver e-learning content as well as measure the outcome of e-learning courses. This class of software will allow these higher education institutions to stay abreast of latest educational technologies, to be competitive in the higher education domain and to afford their stakeholders new innovative ways of teaching and learning. A draft version of the paper is availble here.
Smuts, H; Kotze P; Van der Merwe, A; Loock, M. 2010. Information systems outsourcing issues in the communication technology sector. In: Proceedings of the International Conference Information Systems 2010, edited by M B Nunes, P Isaías and P Powell. IADIS, p. 145-155, ISBN: 978-972-8939-09-0.
Organisations do not have unlimited resources and, by considering outsourcing, are balancing endless requirements with organisational assets. Outsourcing allows access to expertise, knowledge and capabilities outside of the organisation’s bounds. Information systems (IS) outsourcing, as a business phenomenon, has grown as a widely accepted business tool and several reasons to consider IS outsourcing are reported. However, there is evidence that there are numerous barriers to IS outsourcing and that challenges are experienced with IS outsourcing arrangements. These challenges impact negatively on the initial intent of the reasons to outsource and result in organisations not achieving their outsourcing objectives. This paper investigates the IS outsourcing experience in the communication technology (CT) sector in South Africa through a survey among organisations in this sector. The survey results are compared to findings in similar studies in other markets and unique contributors to IS outsourcing issues in the South African context are identified. A draft version of the paper is available here.
Smith A C; Kotze P. 2010. Indigenous African Artefacts: Can they Serve as Tangible Programming Objects? IST-Africa 2010 Conference Proceedings, edited by P Cunningham and M Cunningham, IIMC International Information Management Corporation, ISBN: 978-1-905824-15-, 11 pages.
In this paper we are interested in determining if there is indeed an opportunity to use existing traditional African artefacts as tangible programming elements in computing systems. Research to date has focussed on the design of new artefacts for use in tangible environments. These artefacts are based on Western perceptions. Prior research has also shown that, when introducing new concepts to a developing region, as much of the local content as possible should be incorporated into the new technology. It would therefore be prudent to investigate which dimensions of African artefacts can be exploited when developing tangible interfaces for rural Africa. In this paper we report on the results of a preliminary literature review aimed at identifying possible usable aspects of African artefacts as they pertain to tangible programming environments. A proposed tangible programming environment is given.
Kotzé, P., Van der Merwe, A. 2009. The Research Foci of Computing Research in South Africa as Reflected by Publications in the South African Computer Journal. South African Computer Journal, Vol 44, December 2009, p. 67 -84.
The South African Computer Journal, better known as SACJ, has, for the last nineteen years, been one of the most pertinent publications for the computing discipline within the South African milieu. In this paper we reflect on the topics of research articles published in SACJ over its first 40 volumes of the journal using the ACM Computing Classification Scheme as basis. In our analysis we divided the publications into three cycles of more or less six years in order to identify significant trends over the history of the journal. We also used the same classification scheme to analyse the publication trends of various South African tertiary education and research institutions. Other version sof the paper can be found on the Journal site and the CSIR Research Space.
Greeff, Marde; Kotzé, Paula. 2009. A Lightweight Methodology to Improve Web Accessibility. In: Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists, edited by Jason Cohen and Scott Hazelhurst. SAICSIT in Association with the ACM, p. 30 - 39 . ISBN 978-1-60558-643-4.
This paper introduces a methodology to improve the accessibility of websites with the use of free so-called automatic tools. The methodology has three iterative phases, namely assessing a website against accessibility guidelines, user testing and creating in-house ‘guidelines’ to prevent similar mistakes in future versions of the system. Aspects of accessibility addressed include the use of colour, accessibility guidelines and priorities, readability or comprehensibility, and screen reader simulators. We recommend free tools for each of these accessibility aspects and discuss the process that should be followed when evaluating a website. Another version of the paper is available here.
The paper received an Honoury Mention.
Smuts, Hanlie; Van der Merwe, Alta; Loock, Marianne; Kotzé, Paula. 2009. A Framework and Methodology for Knowledge Management System Implementation. In: Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists, edited by Jason Cohen and Scott Hazelhurst. SAICSIT in Association with the ACM, p. 70 - 79 . ISBN 978-1-60558-643-4.
Knowledge assets are of far greater value than any tangible asset and provide organisations with the basis for creating a sustainable competitive advantage. The nature of knowledge and knowledge management have given rise to a range of different definitions of knowledge management systems that enable organisations to convert their knowledge into actionable information that provides them with a competitive edge and innovative capability. Such an implementation process is a comprehensive course of action that requires focus and commitment through-out the organisation in order to achieve results, yet no universally accepted framework or methodology for such a process exists. This paper analyses and describes enhancements to a 12-step process derived by Calabrese and Orlando to implement a knowledge management system aimed at providing a more comprehensive framework and methodology for knowledge management system implementation. These enhancements are based on findings relating to a knowledge management proof of concept implementation conducted at one of the major mobile telecommunication operators in South Africa. Another version of the paper is available here.
Gelderblom, Helene; Kotzé Paula. 2009. Ten Design Lessons from the Literature on Child Development and Children’s Use of Technology, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, Como, Italy, ACM Press, p. 52-60. ISBN: I978-1-60558-395-2.
The existing knowledge base on child development offers a wealth of information that can be useful for the design of children’s technology. Furthermore, academic journals and conference proceedings provide us with a constant stream of new research papers on child-computer interaction and interaction design for children. It will require some effort from designers to gather and digest the scattered research results and theoretical knowledge applicable to their products. We conducted an extended research project whereby the existing knowledge relating to the design of technology for children aged five to eight have been gathered and presented in a way that makes it accessible and useful to designers in practice. This paper provides and extract from that research, focusing on ten useful lessons learnt from existing literature. Another version of the paper is available here.
Jacobs, Dina; Kotze, Paula; Van der Merwe, Alta; 2009. Towards an Enterprise Repository Framework, Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Advanced Enterprise Repositories (AER 2009), edited by Oliver Camp and Slimane Hammoudi, INSTICC Press, ISBN: 978-989-8111-93-7, p. 77 - 89.
The enterprise architect is dependent on the functionality of the enterprise repository to define and maintain the enterprise architecture. Two of the specific functionalities are typical ‘warehouse’ related functionalities. The one requirement is to integrate multiple business process reference models as source models, similar to the reuse of data from different sources in a data warehouse environment. The second requirement is the flexible visualization of business process models that has a ‘slice-and-dice’ flavour as used in the data warehouse domain. By means of analogical reasoning, our research investigates using the theoretical foundation of the data warehouse domain to contribute to the definition of an enterprise repository framework. Based on the similarities found, an enterprise repository framework is derived. Another version of the paper is available here.
Van der Merwe, A. & Kotzé, P. 2009. A Systematic Approach for the Identification of Process Reference Models. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Software Engineering (SE 2009), ACTA Press, ISBN: 978-0-88986-786-4, p. 75 – 80.
Process models are used in different application domains to capture knowledge on the process flow. Process reference models (PRM) are used to capture reusable process models, which should simplify the identification process of process models and make it economically viable. In the identification of core elements within the process reference model, the focus is often on the end-product and not on the procedure used to identify the elements. As often proved in development of projects, there is a danger to emphasize the end-product without following a solid identification procedure. In this paper, the focus is on the identification of process reference models, where the authors suggest a method to follow for identification of process reference models, apply the method to a case study and reflect on the experiences during requirements elicitation for identification of process reference models at different institutions. Another version of the paper is availble here.
Wong W, Kotzé P, Read J, Bannon L; Hvannberg E. 2009. From Inventivity in Limerick to Creativity in Aveiro: Lessons Learnt. In: Kotzé P; Wong W; Jorge J, Dix, A; and Silva P A (Eds), Creativity and HCI: From Experience to Design in Education. Springer, 12 – 22, ISBN: 978-0-387-89021-0.
In this introductory chapter, we describe the key lessons from an earlier HCI Educators’ conference, held in Limerick in 2006, the outcomes of which led to the theme of HCIEd 2007 – Creativity: Experiencing to Educate and Design. The paper discusses the lessons leant around four key questions: nature vs. nurture: can creative invention be taught; what tools and methods are there to help students learn to develop creative solutions; how do we train educators in creative invention; and what are the stumbling blocks to ‘inventivity’? Another version of the paper is available here.
Kotzé, P; Purgathofer P. 2009. Designing Design Exercises – From Theory to Creativity and Real-world Use. In: Kotzé P; Wong W; Jorge J, Dix, A; and Silva P A (Eds), Creativity and HCI: From Experience to Design in Education. Springer, 42 – 59, ISBN: 978-0-387-89021-0.
This paper discusses a framework for design exercises for interaction design and HCI based on two theoretical frameworks and a set of knowledge transformers. The model scope design exercises on a continuum ranging from creativity to real-world use based on the argument that students must experience design to enable them to learn effectively. Another version of the paper is available here.
Kotzé P; Wong W; Jorge J, Dix, A; and Silva P A . 2009. Creativity and HCI: From Experience to Design in Education. In: Kotzé P; Wong W; Jorge J, Dix, A; and Silva P A (Eds), Creativity and HCI: From Experience to Design in Education. Springer, 1 – 11, ISBN: 978-0-387-89021-0.
Tom Gross, Jan Gulliksen, Paula Kotzé, Lars Oestreicher, Philippe Palanque, Raquel Oliveira Prates, and Marco Winckler (Eds.). 2009. Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2009: 12th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, August 24-28, 2009, Proceedings, Part I; Springer LNCS 5726.
Tom Gross, Jan Gulliksen, Paula Kotzé, Lars Oestreicher, Philippe Palanque, Raquel Oliveira Prates, and Marco Winckler (Eds.). 2009. Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2009: 12th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, August 24-28, 2009, Proceedings, Part II; Springer LNCS 5727.
Mentz, J., Kotzé, P., Van der Merwe, A. 2008. Searching for the Technology in University of Technology. South African Computer Journal, Vol 42, December 2008, p. 29 - 37.
Higher education in South Africa has been the scene for dramatic changes during the last fourteen years of the new democracy. The cleanly divided domains and roles of higher education institutions made way for a chaotic situation that was eventually resolved by the creation of three different kinds of universities. Universities of technology as previously vocational training institutions gained academic legitimacy with the title of university and the right to deliver postgraduate outputs. The problem that arises out of this new order is the claim that technology defines the uniqueness of a university of technology. The public image of the five universities of technology in South Africa is analysed in order to validate this claim.
Van Biljon, J. and Kotzé P. 2008. Cultural Factors in a Mobile Phone Adoption and Usage Model. Journal of Universal Computer Science, Vol 14, No. 16, p. 2560 – 2679.
In human-computer interaction and computing, mobile phone usage is mostly addressed from a feature-driven perspective, i.e. which features do a certain user group use, and/or a usability perspective, i.e. how do they interact with these features. Although the feature driven and usability focus carry value, it is not the full picture. There is also an alternative or wider perspective: mobile phone use is influenced by demographic, social, cultural, and contextual factors that complicate the understanding of mobile phone usage. Drawing on concepts and models from sociology, computer-supported cooperative work, human-computer interaction and marketing, we researched the influence of culture on mobile phone adoption using interviews and two surveys. The contribution of this research is a model that includes culture as one of the factors that influence mobile phone adoption and usage. The proposed model represents the influence of mediating factors and determining factors on actual mobile phone use. The proposed model has been evaluated from both a qualitative and quantitative perspective.
Kotzé, P., Renaud, K. and Van Biljon, J. 2008. Don’t do this – Pitfalls in using anti-patterns in teaching human-computer interaction principles. Computers & Education, 50 (2008) 979–1008; DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2006.10.003.
This paper explores the use of design patterns and anti-patterns in teaching human–computer interaction principles. Patterns are increasingly popular and are seen as an efficient knowledge transfer mechanism in many fields, including software development in the field of software engineering, and more recently in the field of human–computer interaction. In software engineering a concerted effort is also being made to identify and document anti-patterns for recording the experiences of expert software developers to caution novices against potential bad practices. It is, however, essential that we ensure compatibility with the learner’s internal knowledge representation and acquisition processes, whether we are attempting to convey the knowledge in the form of a pattern or an anti-pattern. Since teaching with anti-patterns implies using negation, the primary aim of the research reported in this paper is to explore the efficacy of negative, rather than positive, teaching mechanisms. Evidence from theories of mental modelling and knowledge acquisition that highlight significant dangers in the use of anti-patterns to teach novices human–computer interaction principles is presented and supported with empirical findings. We started off by investigating the use of patterns (positive) in teaching, and then carried out experiments to test the use of anti-patterns (negative) in teaching HCI principles. This paper, whilst reporting mainly on our findings with respect to HCI design anti-patterns, will also identify some problems with the structure and use of patterns and anti-patterns in pedagogy.
Kotzé, P. and Renaud, K. 2008. Do We Practise What We Preach in Formulating Our Design and Development Methods?, Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS 4940, edited by G van der Veer, Springer: Berlin, p. 566 - 585.
It is important, for our credibility as user interface designers and educators, that we practice what we preach. Many system designers and programmers remain sceptical about the need for user-centred design. To win them over, we need to be absolutely clear about what they need to do. We, as a community, propose many different methods to support naïve designers so that they will design and implement user-centred systems. One of the most popular methods is HCI design patterns – captured and formulated by experts for the sole purpose of transferring knowledge to novices. In this paper we investigate the usability of these patterns, using both theoretical and experimental analysis, and conclude that they are not usable. Hence, unfortunately, we have to conclude that we don't practice what we preach. We conclude the paper by making some suggestions about how we can address this situation. You can find a draft version of this paper here
Greeff, M, Kotzé P. 2008. I am Part of Society, but Still an Individual: A Case Study about Challenges Faced by Individuals with Mobility Impairments. In Proceedings of Accessible Design in the Digital World: new media; new technologies; new users. University of York.
This paper reports on our experiences, problems and lessons learned in designing an adaptable web portal that is specifically aimed at people with a variety of disabilities and an initial usability evaluation of the portal. We highlight the fact that designing a system that is usable by people with various disabilities, and various severities of a specific disability, is not a trivial task. Each person with a disability has his/her own way of interacting with ICT devices and even prefers to use different assistive devices, depending on their computer literacy level and the severity of their disability. Although the portal was evaluated by participants with a variety of disabilities, this paper focuses only on the participants with comparable mobility impairments, to illustrate that even within a fairly homogenous group, no ‘universal design’ was possible.
Gelderblom, H; Kotzé P. 2008. Designing Technology for Young Children: What we can Learn from Theories of Cognitive Development. Proceedings of SAICSIT 2008. ACM Conference Proceedings Series, ISBN 978-1-60558-286-3, p. 66 - 75.
The majority of guidelines and principles for design of technology are aimed at products for adults. The limited guidelines available for design of young children’s technology do not focus sufficiently on age-related requirements or they offer high-level advice that is only useful in the planning stages of design. This paper reports on research aiming to develop a set of guidelines for the design of technology for children aged five to eight years. We believe that the existing knowledge base on child development provides an ample starting point for setting up a useful framework of such guidelines. This paper demonstrates how the knowledge contained in psychological theories of child development can be translated into guidelines for the design of technology. Another version of the paper is available here.
Van Biljon, J; Kotzé P; Renaud, K. 2008. Mobile Phone Usage of Young Adults: The Impact of Motivational Factors. In: Proceedings of the Conference of the Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group (CHISIG) of Australia on Computer-Human Interaction , edited by Frank Vetere, Connor Graham & Christine Satchell, CHISIG. ISBN 0-9803063-4-5, p. 57 to 64.
To increase marketability in a competitive and technologically evolving market designers are compelled to add new features to mobile phones. This often leads to ‘featuritis’ with hit-and-miss success rates. Our research goal is to find a more informed point of departure for feature addition activities that will improve design and maximise return on investment. We argue that a human motivational factor focus could provide a solid grounding for judging whether features are likely to be used, or not. In this paper we address the motivational factors that underlie mobile phone use by young adults aged between 18 and 30. We consider models for motivational factors from psychology and consumer science, as well as mobile phone usage space models, including the mobile phone usage space model (MUSM). MUSM proposes linking usage spaces to motivational factors, but does not explicitly investigate the mapping of features to the identified usage spaces. In this paper we investigate the features associated with individual MUSM usage spaces as well as the ranking of the usage spaces for our specific target group. Another version of the paper is availbel here.
Van Biljon, J., Kotzé, P., Marsden, G. 2007. Motivational Needs-Driven Mobile Phone Design. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4662, 523 – 526. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-74796-3.
This paper provides support for the use of motivational needs in identifying mobile phone uses and related features. Drawing on motivational human and usage space research, the findings of interviews and surveys, this paper proposes the Mobile phone Usage Space Model (MUSM). MUSM distinguishes between two groups of features by identifying necessary and additional features, thus focusing the designer’s activity on motivational needs-driven design, rather than feature escalation that currently appears to dominate.
Baumann, K., Kotzé, P., Oestreicher, L., Bannon, L., Varey, A., Van Greunen, D., Van der Veer, G., Petrie, H., Jounila, I., Mavrommati, I., Garay-Vitoria, N., Ozcan, O., Purgathofer, P., Silva, P.A.. 2007. Exercises in Studying HCI – EISH . In HCI Educators 2007 - Creativity3: Experiencing to educate and design. Aveiro, Portugal: GPCG, 134 – 137, ISBN: 978-972-789-227-3
This paper reports on the outcomes of the December 2006 CONVIVIO Faculty Forum and the proposed framework and guidelines for design exercises to stimulate creativity, developed at the Forum.
Kotzé, P., Purgathofer, P. 2007. A Framework for Design Exercises – From Creativity to Real World Use. In HCI Educators 2007 - Creativity3: Experiencing to educate and design. 2007. Aveiro, Portugal: GPCG, 59 – 68, ISBN: 978-972-789-227-3
This paper discusses a framework for interaction design exercises for interaction design and HCI based on two theoretical frameworks and a set of knowledge transformers. The model scope design exercises on a continuum ranging from creativity to real-world use based on the argument that students must experience design to enable them to learn effectively.
Wong, W., Kotzé, P., Bannon, L., Hvannberg, E., Read, J. 2007. Inventivity in HCI Education: Lessons from Limerick. In HCI Educators 2007 - Creativity3: Experiencing to educate and design. 2007. Aveiro, Portugal: GPCG, 9 – 14, ISBN: 978-972-789-227-3
In this paper, we describe the key lessons from a an earlier HCI Educators’ conference, held in Limerick in 2006, on ‘inventivity’ – a term coined to highlight the confluence of inventiveness and creativity. There is a distinction between being creative and being artistic. Hence, HCI education in creative inventiveness is not just about artistically pleasing user interfaces, but also about solutions that are innovative. We can know much about creativity and inventiveness. However, to be able to teach and train students so that they can be creatively inventive, we believe that it would be helpful if educators themselves have personally experienced this. With this in mind, the follow-up conference HCIEd 2007 Creativity: Experiencing to Educate and Design, was organised.
Greeff, M., Kotzé, P. 2007. Individual Difficulties Faced by Persons With Mobility Impairments. Proceeding of IADIS International Conference Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction. IADIS.
Disabled persons are experiencing additional difficulties when interacting with systems, applications or devices and also have their own unique requirements that enable them to use a system. If the design of the system does not support these requirements, people with disabilities will experience obstacles that may prevent them from interacting effectively with a system. This paper reports on the experience with designing an adaptive web portal that can be used by people with a variety of impairments. Highlighted is the fact that designing a system that is usable by people with various disabilities, and various severities of a specific disability, is not a trivial task. The paper specifically focuses on design guidelines that were highlighted by participants with mobility or motion impairments during a usability evaluation to show that even within a fairly homogeneous group, several individual differences will exist that may influence the design of adaptive systems.
Van Biljon J., Kotzé, P. 2007. Profiling M-learning students according to cultural dimensions: Is that possible?. Proceedings of SACLA 2007.
Kotzé, P., Purgathofer, P. 2007. Developing Exrecises for Teaching Computing and Information Technology: A Theoretical Framework. In: Proceedings of Computer Science and Information technology Conference (CSITEd 2007), ISI.
Computing and information technology are very much design disciplines, although not always recognized as such. To succeed as a designer in this context requires experience in design skills, which implies appropriate practice. In the context of teaching computing and information technology this implies providing students with appropriate design exercises. This paper discusses a theoretical framework for the development of such exercises, based on the argument that students must experience design to enable them to learn effectively. The framework scopes exercises on a continuum ranging from creativity to real-world use based on two philosophies: elaboration and reduction.
Van der Merwe, A. Kotzé, P. 2007. Criteria in selecting effective requirements elicitation procedures. In: Proceedings of SAICSIT 2007, SAICSIT, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Vol. 226, ISBN: 978-1-59593-775-9. New York: ACM, 162 – 171.
New methods, methodologies and procedures are often introduced within information systems without discussing the effectiveness thereof. We investigate the effectiveness of a requirements elicitation procedure for deriving process model structures. There were three activities that 'rigged' this study before comments were possible on the effectiveness of the requirements elicitation procedure: identification of the characteristics that the procedure adhered to, investigating the usefulness of the procedure, and using the procedure. Each of these activities is discussed. The higher education institution is used as illustrative case domain.
Van der Merwe, A. Kotzé, P., Gerber, A. 2007. Generic process model structures: Towards a standard notation for abstract presentations. In: Proceedings of SAICSIT 2007, SAICSIT, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Vol. 226, ISBN: 978-1-59593-775-9. New York: ACM, 172 – 180.
The identification of process model structures is usually complex and costly. If these structures can be reused across boundaries, this could not only benefit the internal structure of one application domain, but could also benefit organizations where it is not feasible to initiate expensive process re-engineering innovations. Furthermore, a reusable process is not worth much if the process is not available. The preservation and availability of objects are therefore important, through libraries in the case of objects, or repositories in the case of process models. The creation of the MIT Process Handbook was a step in this direction. However, although the authors used object-oriented concepts in the abstract representations, they did not rigorously apply object-oriented concepts in the abstract representations used in publications on their process repository. Especially in the notation used and reference to specializations, there are some inconsistencies. To address these issues, we suggest the use of polymorphism, where specializations inherit from the generic base process model, and the use of more formal object-oriented notation for defining specialization. Another version of the paper is available here.
Van Biljon, J. Kotzé, P. 2007. Modelling the factors that influence mobile phone adoption. In: Proceedings of SAICSIT 2007, SAICSIT, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Vol. 226, ISBN: 978-1-59593-775-9. New York: ACM, 152 – 161.
Technology adoption models specify a pathway of technology acceptance from external variables to beliefs, intentions, adoption and actual usage. Mobile phone adoption has been studied from a variety of perspectives, including sociology, computer-supported cooperative work and human-computer interaction. What is lacking is a model integrating all these factors influencing mobile phone adoption. This paper investigates technology adoption models as a strategy to match mobile phone design to user's technological needs and expectations. Based on the literature study we integrate three existing technology adoption models and then evaluate the proposed model with interviews and a survey. The contribution of this paper is a model for representing the factors that influence mobile phone adoption.
Publications before 2007
Van der Poll, J.A. and Kotzé, P. 2005. Enhancing the established strategy for constructing a Z specification. South African Computer Journal, 2005. 35: p. 118-131.
The Established Strategy for drawing up a Z specification document focuses on a more abstract activity of specification, namely, how to combine schemas but is largely silent about how to construct a schema. Schema construction may benefit from the application of certain heuristics for establishing its content. While formal specification can be seen as a subsection of software engineering and design heuristics in this area are firmly in place, corresponding principles and strategies for constructing a formal specification have been relatively rare. In this paper we examine a number of formal specifications written in Z as well as some design principles from software engineering and areas of general design. On the strength of these, we propose a preliminary set of heuristics for the construction of a formal specification and show how these may be embedded in an enhanced strategy for specification work. We illustrate how one such enhancement, namely the use of primitives, allows a specifier to discharge an important proof obligation arising from a formal specification, where otherwise a proof is not easily arrived at.
Van der Merwe, A.J., Kotzé, P., and Cronje, J. 2005. The functionality of a requirements elicitation procedure developed for process modelling within the higher education domain. Alternation, 12(1): p. 489-514.
Although various application domains use requirements elicitation procedures to gather information and model the application domain, only a few guidelines mention the important characteristics that are essential for such procedures. This paper reports on identifying a set of characteristics for a functional requirements elicitation procedure within the higher education domain.
Ford, G. and Kotzé, P. 2005. Designing usable interfaces with cultural dimensions, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS 3585, Human-Computer Interaction - INTERACT 2005, edited by M.F. Costabile and F. Paternó, Springer: Berlin. p. 713 - 726.
There are as many arguments against as supporting the accommodation of culture into user interface design. One argument suggests that it is necessary to match the subjective cultural profile of the interface to the cultural profile of the users in order to enhance usability and performance. In contrast, we argue that the interface design characteristics required to design interfaces to accommodate one side of four of the five cultural dimensions proposed by Hofstede will result in an increase in usability for all users, irrespective of the users’ cultural profile. Secondary data analysis of a prior experiment somewhat supported our argument, but we conclude that further research into the effects of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions is required before our hypotheses can be accepted. You can find a draft version of this paper here.
Seker R, Van der Merwe A J, Kotze P. 2004. Assessment of Coupling and Cohesion for Component‑Based Software by Using Shannon Languages. Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science, Vol 8, No 4.
Component-Based Software (CBS) engineering is envisioned to address the issues related to the increasing size and complexity of software systems. In CBS development, the designer designs systems by using readily available (possibly third party) software components without needing the source code for the components. Lack of source code, in general, renders the classical metrics cumbersome to use, if not useless. Coupling and cohesion aspects of a system/subsystem are the quality attributes that can seriously impact the maintenance, evolution, and reuse. We present an information-theoretic approach based on the notion of Shannon Languages for helping the system designer in the assessment of coupling and cohesion early in the design phase. The proposed methodology is most beneficial for CBS (where the source code is in general absent) however it is applicable in other development methodologies in which the source code for the software components is available.
Van Coppenhagen I, Kotzé P & Van der Poll J A. 2004. From specification in UML and Object‑Z through refinement to implementation into Java: a comparative study on the use of inheritance. Transactions, South African Institute for Electrical Engineers, December 2004.
Van der Poll JA, Kotzé P, Labuschagne W. 2004. Automated support for enterprise information systems. Journal of Universal Computer Science, Vol 10, No 11.
A condensed specification of a multi-level marketing (MLM) enterprise which can be modelled by mathematical forests and trees is presented in Z. We thereafter identify a number of proof obligations that result from operations on the state space. Z is based on first-order logic and a strongly-typed fragment of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory, hence the feasibility of using certain reasoning heuristics developed for proving theorems in set theory is investigated for discharging the identified proof obligations. Using the automated reasoner OTTER, we illustrate how these proof obligations from a real-life enterprise may successfully be discharged using a suite of well-chosen heuristics.
Dray S M, Siegel D A, Kotzé P. 2003. Indra’s Net: HCI in the Developing World. Interactions, Vol x.2, 28 – 37.
Van der Poll JA & Kotzé P. 2003. A multi‑level marketing case study: Specifying forests and trees in Z, South African Computer Journal, No 30.
A formal specification of a multi-level marketing (MLM) business is presented. Specifying a MLM business boils down tospecifying properties of and operations on mathematical forests and trees. The usefulness of the model-based specification language, Z, is investigated as a vehicle for a formal specification of these recursive structures. The specification is presented following a prescribed format, namely the Established Strategy for constructing a Z specification. The Established Strategy is augmented with the notion of proof aimed at corroborating the correctness of critical parts of a specification. We show how attempts at discharging two different proof obligations using the resolution-based, first-order theorem prover OTTER calls for the use of two automated reasoning strategies, namely avoiding equality and using resonance.
Some older journal articles still regularly requested:
Kotzé P. 2000. Defining and Specifying Graphs using Formal Model-based Techniques, South African Computer Journal.
Graph theory is an established field of study. The concepts of graphs and transition networks are well-known in computing. Mathematical expressions of some kind are almost always used to de ne graphs. Although these definitions are generally considered to be exact, one runs into difficulty when attempting to specify various graph definitions using a model-based specification notation such as Z, or when implementation structures are considered. In order to successfully do so one has to change the general mathematical definitions of graphs. This paper provides a set of such alternative definitions based on the use of bag structures.
Kotzé P. 1998. Why the hypermedia model is inadequate for computer-based instruction. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, Vol. 30 , No. 3 (September 1998), p. 148 - 152.
With the persuasiveness of hypermedia and its advocated use in computer-based instruction (CBI), it is important to understand the relationship between the two directions. The major difference lies in the way nodes are traversed and the rules that govern such traversals. Whereas hypermedia systems are limited to referential browsing, computer-based instructional systems also require contextual linking enabling the traversal of alternative routes based on the performance level of a student and/or the instructional mode involved. This requires additional facilities not available in the hypermedia model. In this paper, we describe an abstract model of computer-based instructional systems that can be used to highlight the inadequacies of the general hypermedia model and extend its conceptual base to a much wider range of instructional modes.
Kotzé, P., Renaud, K., Koukouletsos, K., Khazaei, B., and Dearden, A. 2006. Patterns, anti-patterns and guidelines – effective aids to teaching HCI principles?, in E T Hvannberg, J C Read, L Bannon, P Kotzé and W Wong (eds.), Inventivity: Teaching theory, design and innovation in HCI, University of Limerick, 115 – 120.
Patterns have been promoted as a knowledge transfer mechanism in many domains, including software engineering, business process management, and more recently in the field of interaction design. In software engineering a concerted effort is also being made to identify and document anti-patterns for capturing expert knowledge and transferring this to novices. This paper reports on a review of reported studies of the use of patterns and anti-patterns in teaching software engineering and human-computer interaction, and also reports on three studies examining the impact of using guidelines, patterns and anti-patterns in teaching interaction design principles.
Van der Merwe, A., Kotzé, P., and Cronje, J. 2006. The usefulness of a generic process model structure, in J Barjis, U Ultes-Nitsche and J C Augusto (eds.), Modelling, Simulation, Verification and Validation of Enterprise Information Systems, INSTICC Press, 86 – 96.
Defining process model structures for reuse in different activities, such as re-engineering, may seem to be an innovative idea. There is, however, a danger that these models are created with no proof that it is useful in practice. In this paper, we give an overview of a re-engineering procedure based on existing re-engineering procedures and Goldratt’s theory of constraints to investigate the usefulness of process model structures in this activity. The usefulness is measured against an ordinal measurement defined.
Kotzé, P. 2006. Design for HCI. EU CONVIVIO Faculty Forum – Teaching Design for HCI, 14 – 17 December 2006, Graz, Austria, CONVIVIO, 33 – 36.
Ford G, Kotzé P & Marcus A. 2005. Cultural Dimension Models: Who is Stereotyping Whom?, in N. Aykin (ed.), Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Usability and Internationalization (in association with 11th International Conference on Human–Computer Interaction(HCI International 2005)) (CD/ROM), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, 10 pages.
Research to establish what aspects of subjective culture influence usability, and to what extent, requires the use of a valid and relevant cultural model. The use of cultural dimension models in general, and Hofstede’s model in particular, has been widely criticized as being stereotypical and rigid, resulting in the rejection of this model as the basis for such research. In contrast to these criticisms, analysis and synthesis of the extant literature has revealed sufficient theoretical evidence to suggest that Hofstede’s cultural dimensions impact a system’s usability in terms of the cognitive load, user acceptance, objective usability, and the context of use. In addition, we present evidence that the problem of stereotyping is not caused from the use of the model, but rather as a result of the way in which the model is used in experimental design. Consequently, we conclude Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model is a relevant paradigm for further research into the effects of subjective culture on cross-cultural usability.
Van der Merwe A, Kotzé P & Cronje J. 2005. Selecting a qualitative research approach for information systems research. In: S Asare (ed), Proceedings of SACLA 2005, University of Botswana.
This paper provides the reader with a set of guidelines when selecting the appropriate research approach for doing qualitative research within the information systems application domain.
Ford G & Kotzé P. (2005). Researching Culture and Usability - A Conceptual Model of Usability, in T McEwan, D Benyon, & J Gulliksen (eds.) People and Computers XIX – The Bigger Picture. Springer, 317 - 333.
There are as many arguments against as supporting the accommodation of culture into user interface design. One argument suggests that it is necessary to match the subjective cultural profile of the interface to the cultural profile of the users in order to enhance usability and performance. In contrast, we argue that the interface design characteristics required to design interfaces to accommodate one side of four of the five cultural dimensions proposed by Hofstede will result in an increase in usability for all users, irrespective of the users’ cultural profile. Secondary data analysis of a prior experiment somewhat supported our argument, but we conclude that further research into the effects of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions is required before our hypotheses can be accepted.
Kotze P, Eloff, Adesina-Ojo, Eloff J. 2004. Accessible computer interaction for people with disabilities: the case of quadriplegics. In: Proceedings Sixth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Volume 5, edited by I Seruca, J Filipe, H Cordeiro. INSTICC, Portugal.
Universal design is the design of products and environments so that all people can use them without adaptation or specialised design. Life must be simplified for all by making products, communications and the built environment more usable for as many people as possible at little, or no extra cost. To understand the challenges that a disabled person has to face when using the computer, we have to know what capabilities such a person has. Only then will it be possible to apply universal design to computer interfaces. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the challenges that many people face in their everyday life and determine to what extend disabled people, especially people with limited or no use of their hands and arms, interact independently with computer equipment. The paper specifically look at quadriplegics, their capabilities, a survey of how they use computer equipment, as well as special devices available to assist them in this interaction.
Kotzé P & Cloete E. 2004. Heuristics supporting usable authoring tools: matching the right tool to the right user. In: Proceedings Sixth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Volume 5, edited by I Seruca, J Filipe, H Cordeiro. INSTICC, Portugal.
In the past few years since e-learning has gained momentum, the user profile of instructional authoring tools has also evolved. It seems that commercial authoring products have not yet adapted to address all user groups, compelling lecturers who prepare e-learning materials to be impeded by their working environment, and as a result the materials do not meet the required quality. In this paper heuristics to design an authoring tool aimed at a specific user group, namely the ordinary lecturer, is described to enable subject-expert lecturers (not necessarily technically skilled) to create and reuse their own e-materials without undergoing intensive technical training. The significance of these heuristics lies in the fact that they provide a method to overcome many of the complexities associated with the design of instructional authoring tools. Furthermore, tools developed according to these heuristics might enable institutions to cope with the universal design demands associated with e-learning without their e-learning programmes being delayed by the scarcity of professional instructional designers and instructional programmers.
Van der Poll J A & Kotzé P. 2004. Reasoning about the Properties of an Enterprise Information Systems. In: Verification and Validation of Enterprise Information Systems, Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Verification and Validation of Enterprise Information Systems, VVEIS 2004 (ISBN 972‑8865‑03‑1), edited by J C Augusto & U Ultes‑Nitsche. INSTICC, Portugal.
Heuristics for solving problems in ZF set theory using a resolution based automated reasoning assistant have been developed elsewhere. A condensed specification of a multi-level marketing enterprise in the Z specification language is presented and a number of proof obligations that result from operations on the state is stated. The feasibility of using certain reasoning heuristics for discharging proof obligations emerging from the specification is investigated and we show that important proof obligations arising from the specification of a real-life enterprise may successfully be discharged using a suite of well-chosen heuristics.
Van der Poll J A & Kotzé P. 2004. Evaluating reasoning heuristics in the context of multi-level marketing structures. In: Fulfilling the promise of ICT, Proceedings of SAICSIT 2004, edited by G Marsden, P Kotzé & A Adesina-Ojo. ACM Conference Proceedings Series, SAICSIT, Pretoria.
J A Van Biljon, P Kotzé, K Renaud, M McGee & A Seffah. 2004. The use of anti-patterns in human-computer interaction. In: Fulfilling the promise of ICT, Proceedings of SAICSIT 2004, edited by G Marsden, P Kotze & A Adesina-Ojo. ACM Conference Proceedings Series, SAICSIT, Pretoria.
Van der Merwe A, Kotze P & Cronje J. 2004. The functionality of a requirements elicitation procedure developed for process modelling within the higher education application domain. In: Proceedings of the 34th SACLA Conference 2004. University of Natal, Durban.
Kotzé P & Singh S. 2003. An overview of systems development methodologies with regard to the involvement of users and other stakeholders. In: IT Research in Developing Countries, Proceedings of SAICSIT 2003, edited by J Eloff, P Kotzé, A Engelbrecht & M Eloff. ACM Conference Proceedings Series, SAICSIT, Pretoria.
Van der Poll J A, Kotze P, Seffah A, Radhakrishnan T & Alsumait A. 2003. Combining UCMs and formal methods for representing and checking the validity of scenarios as user requirements. In: IT Research in Developing Countries, Proceedings of SAICSIT 2003, edited by J Eloff, P Kotzé, A Engelbrecht & M Eloff. ACM Conference Proceedings Series, SAICSIT, Pretoria.
Baumann K, Kotze P, Oestreicher L & Rauterberg M. 2003. Teaching HCI: Looking at other disciplines. In: Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT ‘03, edited by M Rauterberg, M Menozzi & J Wesson. IOS Press.
Noirhomme-Fraiture M, Nicole C, Kotzé P & Abascal J. 2003. Including Accessibility and inclusive design in the curriculum for human-computer interaction. In: Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT ‘03, edited by M Rauterberg, M Menozzi & J Wesson. IOS Press.
Singh S & Kotzé P. 2003. The socio-political culture of users. In: Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT ‘03, edited by M Rauterberg, M Menozzi & J Wesson. IOS Press.
Kotzé P. 2002. Directions in HCI Education, Research and Practice in Southern Africa. Changing the World, Changing Ourselves, Conference Proceedings of CHI 2002, edited by L Terveen, D Wixon, E Comstock, & A Sasse. ACM, Minneapolis, USA.
Kotzé P & Van der Poll J A. 2002. Towards Design Guidelines for Constructing a Formal Specification. Proceedings of 2002 Design, Specification, and Verification of Interactive Systems Workshop (DSVIS 2002), Rostock Germany, 12 ‑ 14 June 2002, 4 - 18. University of Rostock, Germany.
Kotzé P & Cloete E. 2002. Reusable and Usable Environment for the Digital Courseware Domain. Proceedings of the 2002 Informing Science and IT Education Conference (ISSN) 1535-0703), 291 – 304. Informing Science, USA.
Kotzé P, Renaud K & Van Dyk T. 2002. Feedback and Task Analysis for E‑Commerce Sites. Proceedings of ISSA 2002, edited by L Labuschagne & J Eloff, Johannesburg, South Africa, 10 - 12 July 2002. On CD. IFIP.
Kotzé P & Oestreicher L. 2002. Teaching Human‑Computer Interaction: Qualitative Support for an Alternative Approach. Usability: Gaining a Competitive Edge, IFIP World Computer Congress, Montreal, Canada, 267 – 281. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
Kotzé P & Singh S. 2002. Towards a Framework for E‑Commerce Usability. Enablement Through Technology. ‑ Proceedings of SAICSIT 2002 Conference, edited by J E Barrow, P Kotzé, & L M Venter, 2 -10. ACM Conference Proceedings Series, Unisa Press, Pretoria.
Kotzé P & Van der Poll J A. 2002. What Design Heuristics May Enhance the Utility of a Formal Specification. Enablement Through Technology. ‑ Proceedings of SAICSIT 2002 Conference, edited by J E Barrow, P Kotze, & L M Venter, 179 – 194. ACM Conference Proceedings Series, Unisa Press, Pretoria.
Kotzé P, Oestreicher L, Palmer L. 2001. A Resource Base for Human‑Computer Interaction Educational Material. In: Proceedings of SACLA 2001 Conference. University of Pretoria.
Kotzé, P, Oestreicher L. 2001. A Framework for the Development of an International Resource Base for Human‑Computer Interaction Educational Material. In: Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT 01, edited by M Hirose. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kotzé, P, Oestreicher L, Rauterberg M, Toleman M. 2001. Workshop on Developing Educational Material for HCI: Validation and Quality Control Issues. In: Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT 01, edited by M Hirose, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
Kotzé P, Renaud K, Van Dyk T. 2001. Introducing Metrics for Evaluating Usability Aspects of E‑Commerce Sites, Proceedings of CHI-SA, CHI-SA, Pretoria.
Kotze P & Van der Poll J A. 2001. The specification of multi-level marketing business, In: Hardware Software and Peopleware, edited by K V Renaud, P Kotzé, A Barnard. (Proceedings of SAICSIT 2001 Conference), Unisa Press, Pretoria.
Kotzé P, Erwin G J, & Singh S. 2001. Electronic Business Accepted Practices (E-BAP): Standardised HCI for E-Commerce in South Africa. In: SAICSIT 2001 Postgraduate Research Symposium. University of South Africa.
Kotzé P, Renaud K, Van Dyk T. 2001. A Mechanism for Evaluating Feedback of E‑Commerce Sites. In: Towards the E-Society - E-Commerce, E-Business and E-Government, edited by B Schmid, K Stanoevska-Slabeva, & V Tschammer. (Proceedings of the First IFIP Conference on - E-Commerce, E-Business and E-Government (I3E 2001), October 3-5 , pages 389 -398. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.